Uber缘何败给亚洲的本土企业?

文章发表时间:2018-06-06 03:07:49

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Why Uber's Losing to the Locals in Asia

Uber缘何败给亚洲的本土企业?

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 The founders taught drivers to use the app. Photographer: Ore Huiying/Bloomberg

创始团队教司机使用APP。摄影师:Ore Huiying/Bloomberg


By any measure, the April 2016 decision by Uber Technologies Inc. to sell its China operations to rival Didi Chuxing was a defeat. The brief but spectacular battle between the two ride-hailing behemoths had cost Uber at least $2 billion and earned it little more than the enmity of the Chinese government. The only silver lining seemed to be that Uber, free of an expensive price war, could focus its resources on other markets, including rapidly growing Southeast Asia.

优步(Uber)科技公司于2016年4月决定将中国业务出售给竞争对手滴滴出行,以任何标准来看,这都是一次失败。在两大网约车平台巨头之间短暂而吸引眼球的战争中,Uber耗费了至少20亿美元,却只换回中国政府的不满。对公司而言,唯一的安慰大概是在摆脱昂贵的价格战后,得以将资源投入到其他市场——包括迅速增长的东南亚市场。


That's now going to be a lot harder. Earlier this week, GrabTaxi Holdings Pte. Ltd., Southeast Asia's dominant ride-hailing company, announced it had raised $2 billion (with another $500 million on the way) to help it lock up the region. The company was already well ahead of Uber locally, thanks to a deft business plan that focused on meeting the needs of the Southeast Asian consumer, especially in payments. The fresh funds should widen that lead -- and call into question whether Uber's one-app-fits-all approach to the global ride-hailing business can work.

然而,东南亚市场的攻略在如今相当艰难。本周早些时候,东南亚最大的网约车平台GrabTaxi 控股有限公司宣布成功融资20亿美元(另有5亿美元在融资中),以巩固在该地区的优势。该公司巧妙的经营策略迎合了东南亚消费者的需求(尤其在支付方面),在当地已遥遥领先于Uber。这一笔融资预计会扩大其领先优势——也让Uber在全球网约车业务中的统一模式遭到质疑。


On paper, at least, the 10 very different countries comprising Southeast Asia seems exactly like the kind of market in which a well-capitalized global technology company like Uber should prosper. The region is now the world's fourth-largest internet market, with just over half of its 640 million citizens online. Those ranks are growing rapidly, swelled by young, middle-class consumers eager to spend.

至少从理论上看,包括10个国家的东南亚地区似乎正是Uber这类资本雄厚的跨国科技公司能够成功的市场。这一地区现在是全世界第四大互联网市场,6.4亿人口中仅有略过半数使用互联网。互联网的用户量正在迅速增长,新增的用户以热衷消费的年轻中产阶级为主。


According to a study conducted by Google and Temasek, Singapore's sovereign wealth fund, the Southeast Asian ride-hailing market is expected to be worth $13.1 billion in 2025, up from $2.5 billion in 2015. Even better, every major Southeast Asian country is expected to have a $1 billion market of its own by then, with ride-hailing making up 15 percent of total travel expenditures in the region.

Google以及新加坡主权财富基金Temasek的研究显示,预计至2025年,东南亚的网约车市场价值将从2015年的25亿美元增长至131亿美元。更有前景的是,届时东南亚主要国家的市场价值预计都将达到10亿美元,目前网约车消费占当地出行开支的15%。


Uber started offering services in Singapore in early 2013, and expanded to Malaysia later that year. For users already accustomed to the service, the experience was seamless. But for locals, especially in Malaysia, it suffered from three problems. First, it was noticeably more expensive than traditional taxi alternatives. And second, payment could be made via credit card only, despite the fact that consumers strongly preferred using cash. Finally, Uber -- like other car services in Malaysia -- suffered from perceptions that it was unsafe, especially for female riders.

Uber于2013年初进入新加坡市场,同年将其业务扩展至马来西亚。已习惯这类服务的用户的体验很完美,但对于当地人(尤其是马来西亚人)而言,Uber存在三大问题:第一,价格远高于传统的出租车;第二,只能使用信用卡支付,而当地人主要使用现金支付;最后,Uber(与马来西亚的其他汽车服务一样)被认为存在安全问题,尤其是对女性乘客。


Having grown up in Malaysia, Grab's co-founders launched the company in 2012 in large part to solve the security problem. Among other safety-related features, the Grab app allows users to share their journey in real-time with others. The app also includes an emergency button that connects passengers with the nearest police department and, in the interest of protecting female drivers and passengers, the company recently introduced in-car CCTV cameras.

Grab成立于2012年,其创始团队都在马来西亚长大,公司在很大程度上解决了安全问题。在安全相关方面,Grab的APP允许用户与他人实时分享行程;APP内设有紧急按钮,可供乘客联络距离最近的警署部门;为了保护女性司机和乘客,近期还引入车内CCTV摄像机。


The company accepts cash or credit cards. That appeals to drivers as well as passengers, helping to expand the company's fleet. (Uber's begun introducing cash payments as well in major Southeast Asian markets over the last couple years.) Recognizing that many of Southeast Asia's drivers are older and suspicious of technology, and that some can't afford a smartphone, the company has made active efforts to bridge the connectivity gap: The founders themselves have tutored drivers one-on-one at local coffee shops, while the company subsidizes the purchase of smartphones for poorer drivers.

Grab同时接受现金和信用卡支付。这一点对司机和乘客都颇具吸引力,帮助其迅速扩展了司机的数量。(近年来,Uber也开始在东南亚的主要国家支持现金支付。)东南亚司机的平均年龄较大,普遍对于科技持怀疑态度,还有人买不起手机,意识到现状的Grab为了跨越鸿沟,进行了积极的努力:创始团队亲自在当地的咖啡店里对司机进行单独培训,公司还提供津贴,帮助经济拮据的司机购置智能手机。


Compared to Grab, Uber feels like it's pushing a business model and an app designed in and for wealthier markets. There's no public data available on Southeast Asia's ride-hailing market, but Grab claims it enjoys a 95 percent market share in third-party taxi hailing, and a 71 percent share in private hailing. Indeed, within Southeast Asia, and especially Malaysia and Singapore, it's largely taken for granted that Grab has more cars available (something to which I can personally attest).

相比之下,Uber似乎是在照搬发达地区的商业模式和APP。虽然并无可供查阅的东南亚网约车市场公开数据,Grab宣称拥有95%的第三方出租车预约市场份额、71%的私人约车市场份额。事实上,在东南亚(特别是马来西亚和新加坡),人们认为Grab拥有更多车辆是理所当然的(我本人可以作证)。


Grab isn't taking that commanding lead for granted. To further cement its advantage, it's moving into electronic payments. Last year it bought an Indonesian company whose technology allows mobile phone users to pay cash for online credit; its latest round of funding is earmarked to expand GrabPay, an electronic payment system for which customers also buy credits. Grab has been upfront that it envisions transforming itself via GrabPay into a consumer company that offers financial services and shopping, as well as transportation.

而Grab并未将其领先地位视作理所当然。为了巩固其优势,公司开始涉足电子支付领域,并在去年收购拥有手机在线预付技术的一家印度尼西亚公司;其最新一轮融资的目标是发展GrabPay,一款可供用户购买预付卡的电子支付平台。希望通过GrabPay在未来转型为提供金融、购物和出行服务的消费者公司。


It bodes well that at least one other local ride-hailing firm is attempting the same transformation, hoping to fuel its diversification through e-payments. For Uber, however, this may be the end of the road in Southeast Asia. With little more to offer than a ride, it's in jeopardy of losing out to smaller companies offering an on-ramp to the digital economy.

好兆头是,至少还有一家当地网约车公司在尝试同样的转型道路,通过电子支付推动多元化发展。但是对于Uber来说,或许意味着在东南亚市场的穷途末路。在追随数字经济潮流的小公司面前,仅提供出行服务的Uber正面临着失败的危机。


原文地址:

https://www.bloomberg.com/view/articles/2017-07-27/why-uber-s-losing-to-local-rivals-in-southeast-asia


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