Our ancient ocean temperature records may be wrong meaning current warming is unparalleled for 100 million years (excerpt) 我们古老海洋温度记录可能出现误差,这意味着现如今的全球变暖亿年罕见 (节选)

文章发表时间:2017-11-23 09:32:05

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  Scientists may have miscalculated ancient ocean temperature records. If confirmed, the discovery throws decades of climate research into question and could mean we are living through a period of climate change unparalleled for at least 100 million years.

  科学家可能误算古老海洋温度记录。如果这一消息被证实,这一发现将会置数十年的气候调查于疑问中,可能意味着我们现今生活在一个至少亿年未见的气候变化时期。

  It is generally accepted among the scientific community that ocean temperatures were around 15 degrees Celsius warmer 100 million years ago than they are today, during the Cretaceous period.

  科学界普遍认为,海洋温度在亿年前的白垩纪时期比现在暖和约15摄氏度。

  The Cretaceous period saw the highest global temperatures for the last 200 million years, because of the way the continents were positioned, with ocean circulation preventing the formation of ice sheets.

  由于陆地分布,以及海洋环流阻碍了冰川的形成,白垩纪时期见证了最后两亿年最高的全球温度。

  Scientists estimate ancient ocean temperatures using cores of sediment removed from the ocean floor. These contain the fossils of tiny marine organisms that lived at the time. By analyzing their calcareous shells, researchers can look at the content of oxygen-18—a natural, stable isotope of oxygen that provides information on the temperature at the time.

  科学家用海洋沉积物的核心部分来估算古老海洋的温度。这些沉淀物包含了生活在当时的微小海洋生物的化石。通过分析他们的钙质壳,研究人员可以检测氧-18含量——一种天然的、稳定的氧同位素,能提供当时温度的信息。

  For the last 50 years, scientists have based estimates on paleoclimates using this technique. One of these calculations showed ocean temperatures 100 million years ago were far warmer than they are today and this estimate has been used as a staple in climate change research for decades.

  在过去的50年里,科学家们一直使用这种技术来估算古气候。其中一项计算表明,1亿年前的海洋温度比今天更为温暖,这一估计数十年里都被用作气候变化研究的主要内容。

  However, in a study published in Nature Communications, a team of scientists from Europe has called into question the validity of oxygen-18 readings from this time. They looked at whether the fossils in the sediment cores had not remained constant over the millions of years they were trapped there.

  然而,在自然通讯发表的一项研究表明,一组来自欧洲的科学家质疑这一时期氧-18读数的有效性。他们观察了沉积物核心的化石是否在几百万年里一直保持不变。

  To find out, the team exposed the organisms to high temperatures in artificial sea water containing oxygen-18. They then looked at how oxygen-18 was incorporated into their shells. Findings showed that the level of oxygen-18 can alter over time without leaving any trace of this change.

  为了有所发现,该组科学家将有机物暴露在含有氧-18温度高的人工海水中。然后他们观测有氧-18如何进行钙化。结果表明,氧-18水平可以随着时间的推移,不留任何痕迹的发生变化。

  “What appeared to be perfectly preserved fossils are in fact not. This means that the paleotemperature estimates made up to now are incorrect,” lead author Sylvain Bernard, from France’s National Center for Scientific Research (CNRS),” said in a statement.

  “看来保存完好的化石实际上并非如此。这意味着到现在为止的古老海洋温度估计都是不正确的,”来自法国的国家科学研究中心(CNRS)的作者Sylvain Bernard在发言中这样说道。

  Instead of showing warm ocean temperatures 100 million years ago, the research indicates the changes seen are the result of the changing that take place during sedimentation, where the fossils reacclimatized to their new surroundings.

  研究表明,我们所看到的变化,不是亿年前的温暖海洋气候,而是在沉淀物发生的变化,这是化石在重新适应新环境的过程。

  Further computer simulations in light of the latest findings indicate that in fact, oceans at this time were far cooler—and were fairly similar to temperatures seen today. If this is the case, the current period of warming is potentially far more concerning than previously realized.

  根据最近进一步的计算机模拟调查结果表明,事实上,那时的海洋温度更低——

相当于我们今天的温度。如果是这样的话,目前的气候变暖问题可能要比以前更为令人担忧。

原文地址:

http://www.newsweek.com/ancient-ocean-temperatures-wrong-unparalleled-climate-change-694434


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