分享6月新闻热词

文章发表时间:2018-07-02 13:06:12

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6月,上合组织领导人峰会在青岛举行;美朝两国领导人在新加坡进行首次会晤,并发表联合声明;国家主席习近平向俄罗斯总统普京授予中华人民共和国首枚“友谊勋章”;俄罗斯世界杯开赛,东道主首场大胜,卫冕冠军爆冷出局;个人所得税法修正案草案提请人大常委会审议;我国启动空气污染防控督查;美国宣布退出联合国人权理事会。



友谊勋章 Friendship Medal

President Xi Jinping awarded his Russian counterpart Vladimir Putin the first-ever Friendship Medal of the People's Republic of China.

国家主席习近平向俄罗斯总统普京授予中华人民共和国首枚“友谊勋章”。

6月8日,中华人民共和国“友谊勋章”颁授仪式在北京人民大会堂金色大厅隆重举行。国家主席习近平向俄罗斯总统普京授予首枚“友谊勋章”。新华社记者 申宏 摄

根据《中华人民共和国国家勋章和国家荣誉称号法》,国家设立中华人民共和国“友谊勋章”(Friendship Medal),授予为我国社会主义现代化建设和促进中外交流合作、维护世界和平作出杰出贡献的外国人(foreigners who have made outstanding contributions to China's socialist modernization drive, in promoting exchange and cooperation between China and the world, and in safeguarding world peace),为国家最高荣誉(the highest state honor)。

The introduction of the Friendship Medal is designed to convey the basic ideas of friendship, peace, fairness, and justice to the world by setting up models of friendship between China and foreign countries, and to promote the world's understanding of China.

设立颁授中华人民共和国“友谊勋章”,旨在通过树立中外友谊典范,向世界传递友谊和平、公平正义等基本理念,增进世界对中国的了解。

中华人民共和国“友谊勋章”章体以金色、蓝色为主色调,采用和平鸽、地球、握手、荷花(a peace dove, the Earth, a handshake, and a lotus)等元素,章链采用中国结、万年青、牡丹花、玉璧、兰草等元素(the chain features elements such as Chinese knots, evergreens, peonies, a jade disc and orchids),整体采用花丝镶嵌(filigree and inlay)、掐丝珐琅(cloisonne)等传统工艺手工制作。

The design symbolizes the lasting friendship and solidarity between the Chinese people and the people of all other countries, as well as the hope for common prosperity and development around the world.

设计制作象征中国人民同各国人民友好团结、友谊长存,祝愿世界各国共同繁荣发展。

上海精神 the Shanghai Spirit

国家主席习近平10日上午在山东青岛出席上海合作组织成员国元首理事会第十八次会议并发表重要讲话。

习近平说,当前,世界发展既充满希望,也面临挑战,我们的未来无比光明,但前方的道路不会平坦。我们要进一步弘扬"上海精神(the Shanghai Spirit)",破解时代难题,化解风险挑战(further carry forward the Shanghai Spirit to surmount difficulties, defuse risks and meet challenges)。

他提出,

We should uphold innovative, coordinated, green, open and inclusive development, achieve coordinated social and economic progress of various countries and resolve issues caused by unbalanced development. We should bridge the gap in development and promote shared prosperity.

我们要提倡创新、协调、绿色、开放、共享的发展观,实现各国经济社会协同进步,解决发展不平衡带来的问题,缩小发展差距,促进共同繁荣。

We should pursue common, comprehensive, cooperative and sustainable security. We should reject the Cold War mentality and confrontation between blocks and oppose the practices of seeking absolute security of oneself at the expense of the security of other countries, so as to achieve security of all.

我们要践行共同、综合、合作、可持续的安全观,摒弃冷战思维、集团对抗,反对以牺牲别国安全换取自身绝对安全的做法,实现普遍安全。

We need to promote open and inclusive cooperation for win-win outcomes. We should reject self-centered, short-sighted and closed-door policies. We should uphold WTO rules and support the multilateral trading system so as to build an open world economy.

我们要秉持开放、融通、互利、共赢的合作观,拒绝自私自利、短视封闭的狭隘政策,维护世界贸易组织规则,支持多边贸易体制,构建开放型世界经济。

Equality, mutual learning, dialogue and inclusiveness between cultures should be championed, so that we overcome cultural misunderstanding, clash and supremacy through exchanges, mutual learning and coexistence.

我们要树立平等、互鉴、对话、包容的文明观,以文明交流超越文明隔阂,以文明互鉴超越文明冲突,以文明共存超越文明优越。

We should adhere to extensive consultation, joint contribution and shared benefits in global governance, steadily reform and improve the global governance system, and push all countries to jointly build a community with a shared future for humanity.

我们要坚持共商共建共享的全球治理观,不断改革完善全球治理体系,推动各国携手建设人类命运共同体。

习近平在讲话中说,

"上海精神"是我们共同的财富,上海合作组织是我们共同的家园(the Shanghai Spirit is our shared asset, and the SCO is our shared home)。我们要继续在"上海精神"指引下,同舟共济,精诚合作,齐心协力构建上海合作组织命运共同体(to build an SCO community with a shared future),推动建设新型国际关系,携手迈向持久和平、普遍安全、共同繁荣、开放包容、清洁美丽的世界(build an open, inclusive, clean and beautiful world that enjoys lasting peace, universal security, and common prosperity)。

为此,他提出以下建议:

SCO member states should build up strength of unity and mutual trust.

第一,凝聚团结互信的强大力量。

SCO member states should strengthen the foundation for shared peace and security.

第二,筑牢和平安全的共同基础。

SCO members need to build a powerful engine to achieve common development.

第三,打造共同发展繁荣的强劲引擎。

Member states of the SCO should forge closer ties through people-to-people and cultural exchanges.

第四,拉紧人文交流合作的共同纽带。

SCO member states need to expand partnership networks of international cooperation.

第五,共同拓展国际合作的伙伴网络。

特金会 Trump-Kim meeting

6月12日,美国总统特朗普与朝鲜最高领导人金正恩在新加坡圣淘沙岛上的嘉佩乐酒店举行首次会晤。

It is the first-ever meeting between a DPRK leader and a sitting US president.

这是有史以来朝鲜领导人与美国在任总统的首次会晤。

They shook hands and held a 40-minute one-on-one meeting, before proceeding to an expanded meeting and a working lunch with their aides.

两人握手之后进行了40分钟的单独会晤,随后与各自的助理人员一起进行了大范围会谈,并共进工作午餐。

The US leader described the one-on-one session as "very, very good." During the face-to-face talks, Trump said he had an "excellent relationship" with Kim.

特朗普表示单独会晤“非常非常好”,期间,他还称与金正恩“关系很好”。

The DPRK leader said he and Trump came here after overcoming "all the obstacles" such as old prejudice and practices that had stood in their way forward.

金正恩表示,过去的偏见和惯例是阻碍两国之间实现会晤的障碍,双方克服了“各种障碍”才走到今天。

Predicting a tremendous success of the summit with the DPRK leader, Trump said that it was "an honor" to meet face-to-face with Kim and that he would have "a terrific relationship" with the DPRK leader.

特朗普预言此次会晤会很成功,他表示,很荣幸能够与金正恩进行面对面会晤,他会跟朝鲜领导人有“特别好的关系”。

"Working together, we will get it taken care of," Trump said at the beginning of expanded discussions, forecasting that he and Kim will solve "a big problem and a big dilemma."

在大范围会谈开始时,特朗普表示:“我们会一起努力解决问题”,并预言他和金正恩会解决“重大问题和主要困境”。

Kim said he will "cooperate with President Trump to resolve the challenges ahead" and to overcome the skepticism and speculations about their summit.

金正恩表示,他会“与特朗普总统合作解决即将到来的挑战”,并应对关于此次会晤的质疑和猜测。

工作午餐之后,双方领导人签署了一份协议。

Trump and Kim signed a document on Tuesday afternoon, a document that Trump described as "very important" and "very comprehensive”.

当日下午,特朗普和金正恩签署了一份协议,特朗普称这份协议“非常重要、非常全面”。

Kim declares "world will see a major change" and he and Trump "decided to leave the past behind" as they sign document.

签署协议时,金正恩表示,“全世界将会看到巨大的变化”,并表示,他和特朗普“决定放下过去。”

A joint statement signed by Trump and Kim. [Photo/Agencies]

双方在协议中做出如下声明:

1. The United States and the DPRK commit to establish new US-DPRK relations in accordance with the desire of the peoples of the two countries for peace and prosperity.

依照朝鲜和美国两国人民对和平和繁荣的期望,美国与朝鲜人民民主主义共和国将建立新型朝美关系。

2. The United States and the DPRK will join their efforts to build a lasting and stable peace regime on the Korean Peninsula.

美国与朝鲜人民民主主义共和国将会共同努力为朝鲜半岛带来长久和稳定的和平。

3. Reaffirming the April 27, 2018 Panmunjom Declaration, the DPRK commits to work towards complete denuclearization of the Korean Peninsula.

重申4月27日在板门店非军事区的协定,朝鲜承诺继续进行完成朝鲜半岛无核化的进程。

4. The United States and the DPRK commit to recovering POW/MIA remains, including the immediate repatriation of those already identified.

朝鲜和美国承诺找回战俘/失踪人口(POW/MIA)遗体,包括立刻送返已经确认身份的遗体。

6月12日中午,国务委员兼外交部长王毅对记者表示,全世界高度关注正在新加坡举行的朝美领导人会晤。

两国相互对立甚至敌对半个多世纪,今天,两国的最高领导人能够坐在一起,进行平等对话,这本身就具有重大和积极的意义,就是在创造新的历史(It is important and positive for the top leaders of the two countries to sit down and conduct equal talks , which is creating a new history)。中方对此当然欢迎和支持,因为这是中方一直期待和努力的目标。

我们希望朝美领导人排除干扰,建立互信,克服困难,就推进和实现半岛无核化、推进并建立半岛和平机制达成基本共识,迈出实质性步伐(result in substantive steps toward denuclearization and the establishment of a peace mechanism on the Korean Peninsula)。

王毅希望有关各方都能为此做出努力,强调中方也将继续发挥建设性作用(China will continue to play a constructive role in this regard)。

共享护士 nurse sharing

With featured services like “nurse sharing”, it is said to benefit medical professionals who are often underpaid, and bypass non-urgent hospital visits for patients. This is especially the case among the aging population, those with chronic diseases and people in need of care after being discharged from the hospital.

据称,有“共享护士”特色服务的app既能让收入偏低的医护人员受益,也能让病人省去非紧急情况下跑医院的麻烦。这种情况在老龄人口、慢性病患者以及出院需要护理的人群中尤其适用。

“共享护士(nurse sharing)”是分享经济(sharing economy)大潮中的一个新成员,操作方式与其他共享类服务app相似,也是线上预约(making appointment online),线下服务(offering service offline)。需要护理和服务的患者在平台登记注册并上传用药处方后根据需求下单,另一边注册并通过审核的护士抢单或者由系统派单。

“共享护士”提供的服务包括上门打针输液(injection and IV)、静脉采血(blood draw)、外科伤口换药(wound dressing change)、灌肠(coloclysis)、吸痰导尿(aspiration of sputum and urethral catheterization)、鼻饲(nasal feeding)护理及指导等10多项。

低头族专用道 special walkway for phubbers

The one-meter-wide, 100-meter-long track is painted in red, blue, and green, with pictures of mobile phones and the words "special walkway for phubbers" in Chinese.

这条宽1米长100米的通道被漆成红、蓝、绿色相间,上面还有一个手机的图标,并用中文写着“低头族专用通道”。

Phubber(低头族)这个词来源于phubbing,phubbing是 phone和snubbing(冷落)的合成词,意思就是因为有了手机就冷落了周边的人和事(snubbing anyone and anything else in favor of a mobile phone)。

该通道一经曝光即引发争议,有人认为:在路上低头玩手机本身就非常危险,设立“低头族专用通道”可能会鼓励和纵容这种行为。

该通道建设方则表示,他们铺设“低头族专用通道”,主要是为了警示“低头族”。

The walking path is a good way of reminding people to put their phones away and pay attention to their surroundings for their own safety and the safety of others.

这条通道对人们有很好的提醒作用,让他们收起手机,为了自己和他人的安全多关注周边的环境。

燃油附加费 fuel surcharge

Chinese air carriers announced on Monday the resumption of a fuel surcharge on domestic routes starting June 5.

4日,国内多家航空公司均宣布自本月5日起恢复征收国内航线燃油附加费。

自5日起,国航(Air China)、东航、海航、上航、春秋航空(Spring Airlines)、深圳航空、西部航空(West Air)、奥凯航空等多家航空公司正式恢复征收国内航线的燃油附加费(fuel surcharge)。上述航空公司已在官网上发布了调整国内航线燃油附加费的通知。通知显示,5日(出票日期/旅行日期)起,800公里(含)以下及800公里以上航线每人收取燃油附加费10元(charge an additional 10 yuan for each adult ticket on routes both shorter and longer than 800 km)。

一名航空公司内部人员(airline company insider)称,复征燃油附加费的主要原因是国际油价高企(high international oil prices),以及航空公司成本增加(airlines' increasing costs)。2015年2月燃油附加费停止征收(the end of fuel surcharges)后,国家发改委和民航总局曾规定,将收取民航国内航线旅客运输燃油附加依据的航空煤油基础价格(base price of aviation kerosene for civil airlines),由当时每吨4140元提高到每吨5000元,即国内航空煤油综合采购成本超过每吨5000元时,航空公司可收取燃油附加费(when the jet fuel price surpasses 5,000 yuan per ton, airlines could levy a new surcharge)。

空气污染防控督查 air pollution control inspections

The country's top environmental watchdog will dispatch about 18,000 law enforcement officers to conduct air pollution control inspections in three key areas starting on Monday.

6月11日起,生态环境部将派出1.8万人次在三个重点区域进行空气污染防控督查。

今年的督查主题为“蓝天保卫战(Blue Sky Protection Campaign)”,重点对京津冀(Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region)及周边“2+26”城市、汾谓平原(Fenhe and Weihe plains)11城市,以及长三角地区(the Yangtze River Delta)等重点区域持续开展大气污染防治强化督查。

据了解,这些重点区域虽然当前空气质量继续改善,但个别地区污染仍然较重。

Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region is still the area with the worst air quality in the country.

京津冀地区仍然是全国环境空气质量最差的地区。

Hebei, Shanxi, Henan and Shandong provinces and Tianjin saw no more than 60 percent of days last year with fairly good air quality. And the situation in the Fenhe and Weihe river valleys is deteriorating, not improving.

河北、山西、天津、河南、山东5省(市)优良天气比例仍不到60%,汾渭平原更是近年来大气污染不降反升。

此次强化督查将分三个阶段,围绕产业结构(industrial structure)、能源结构(energy structure)、运输结构(transportation structure)和用地结构(land use structure)4项重点任务,检查“散乱污”企业(poorly managed - and polluting - small enterprises)综合整治情况、工业企业环境问题治理情况、清洁取暖(clean energy heating)及燃煤替代(coal substitution)情况等。

企业职工基本养老保险金中央调剂制度 central adjustment system for basic pension funds of enterprise employees

China will establish a central adjustment system for basic pension funds of enterprise employees to balance payment burdens of local governments, according to an official document.

《通知》表示,我国将建立企业职工基本养老保险金中央调剂制度,以均衡地方政府的养老金负担。

《通知》明确,建立养老保险基金中央调剂制度(a central adjustment system for basic pension funds)的主要内容是,在现行企业职工基本养老保险省级统筹基础上,建立养老保险中央调剂基金,对各省份养老保险基金进行适度调剂(a central adjustment fund will be set up to regulate pension funds in various provincial regions),确保基本养老金按时足额发放(help guarantee timely and complete payments to retirees)。

一是中央调剂基金由各省份养老保险基金上解的资金构成(the adjustment fund draws a certain portion from the provincial capital pool),按照各省份职工平均工资的90%和在职应参保人数作为计算上解额的基数,上解比例从3%起步,逐步提高。

二是中央调剂基金实行以收定支(distribution of the adjustment fund will be based on scale of the capital pool),当年筹集的资金按照人均定额拨付的办法全部拨付地方。

三是中央调剂基金纳入中央级社会保障基金财政专户(the adjustment fund is managed by a special account of the central social security fund),实行收支两条线管理,专款专用,不得用于平衡财政预算。

四是现行中央财政补助政策和补助方式不变(the central government will continue supporting local governments in pension distributions),省级政府要切实承担确保基本养老金按时足额发放和弥补养老保险基金缺口的主体责任。

世界杯 World Cup

This year's Football World Cup has opened in spectacular fashion, with the host Russians routing Saudi Arabia 5-0, recording the biggest win by the host nation in the opening game of a World Cup since 1934.

今年的世界杯足球锦标赛以令人叹为观止的方式拉开了帷幕。东道主俄罗斯以5:0的成绩打败沙特阿拉伯,刷新自1934年以来主办国在世界杯揭幕战中获得的最大胜利。

在此前进行的7场比赛中俄罗斯无一获胜(have not won in their past seven matches)。但在莫斯科卢日尼基体育场(Luzhniki Stadium)约7.8万粉丝的观战下,俄罗斯对阵沙特阿拉伯易如反掌(Russia had little trouble against the Saudis)。

比赛过程中,数位俄罗斯战将颇为勇猛,帮助祖国赢得出线小组赛的机会(help Russia's chances of qualifying from the group stage)。俄罗斯此次获胜也使得世界杯(World Cup)史上的"揭幕战东道主不败(host nation not losing the opening match)"定律得以延续。

接下来,俄罗斯将迎战萨拉赫领衔的埃及队(Russia will play Egypt led by Mohamed Salah next)和实力更强的乌拉圭队。虽然收获开门红(win the first game),但面对更加强大的对手,在14日晚的狂欢过后,俄罗斯还需重新开始。

个税改革 reform of personal income tax

China's top legislature is revising the personal income tax code in a sweeping overhaul of the tax system. Specific personal income tax changes that aim to reduce taxpayer burdens and boost consumption are expected after the proposed changes receive regulatory approval.

全国人大常委会正在审议个人所得税法,这是税收制度的一次大调整。此次提交审议的草案通过后,有望出台减轻纳税人负担、刺激消费等个人所得税具体改革措施。

个人所得税法修正案草案的亮点有:

起征点提高 raise the threshold

The draft amendment raises the threshold for personal income tax from 3,500 yuan to 5,000 yuan per month, or 60,000 yuan per year.

草案将个税起征点由之前的3500元上调至5000元/月(6万元/年)。

专项附加扣除 special expense deductions

The draft amendment adds special expense deductions for items like children's education, continuing education, treatment for serious diseases, as well as housing loan interest and rent.

草案首次增加子女教育支出、继续教育支出、大病医疗支出、住房贷款利息和住房租金等专项附加扣除。

税率变化 changes in tax rates

扩大3%、10%、20%三档低税率的级距,3%税率的级距扩大一倍,现行税率为10%的部分所得的税率降为3%;大幅扩大10%税率的级距,现行税率为20%的所得,以及现行税率为25%的部分所得的税率降为10%;现行税率为25%的部分所得的税率降为20%;相应缩小25%税率的级距,30%、35%、45%这三档较高税率的级距保持不变。

If the revisions are adopted, those whose monthly salary ranges from 5,000 yuan to 20,000 yuan will see their tax cut by over 50 percent and those whose monthly salary ranges from 20,000 to 80,000 will see their tax cut by 10 to 50 percent.

如果草案通过,月收入在5000元至2万元之间的人纳税额将减半,月收入在2万元至8万元之间的人纳税额将减少10%到50%。

综合征税 comprehensive income taxation

现行个人所得税法采用“分类征税”方式,即将应税所得分为11类,实行不同征税办法。草案将11类中的4类,即工资薪金(salary)、劳务报酬(remuneration for personal service)、稿酬(remuneration)、特许权使用费(royalty)等4项劳动性所得纳入综合征税范围,适用统一的超额累进税率。

反避税条款 anti-tax avoidance clause

The draft amendment also adds an anti-tax avoidance clause, empowering tax authorities to adjust tax rates when individuals transfer property in violation of independent trading. Individuals will also be subject to the clause when they evade taxes through overseas tax havens or obtain improper tax benefits by organizing unlawful commercial activities.

草案增加了反避税规定,针对个人不按独立交易原则转让财产、在境外避税地避税、实施不合理商业安排获取不当税收利益等避税行为,赋予税务机关按合理方法进行纳税调整的权力。

联合国人权理事会 United Nations Human Rights Council

The Trump administration withdrew from the United Nations Human Rights Council on Tuesday in protest of what it perceives as an entrenched bias against Israel and a willingness to allow notorious human rights abusers as members.

周二特朗普政府退出联合国人权理事会,以此抗议所谓的人权理事会对以色列根深蒂固的偏见和允许臭名昭著的人权施虐者成为成员。

黑莉在发布会上指责联合国人权理事会已经成了“藏污纳垢之地”:

"For too long," Haley said, "the Human Rights Council has been a protector of human rights abusers, and a cesspool of political bias."

“长久以来,人权理事会已经成了人权施虐者的保护者,是政治偏见的藏污纳垢之地”。

她还表示,美国“退群行为”不是在人权方面的退却:

“I want to make it crystal clear that this step is not a retreat from our human rights commitments,” she said. “On the contrary. We take this step because our commitment does not allow us to remain a part of a hypocritical and self-serving organization that makes a mockery of human rights.”

“我要明确的是,此举不是我们在人权承诺方面的退却,恰恰相反,我们这么做正是因为自己的承诺不允许我们再留在这个虚伪自私的组织,该组织是对人权的嘲讽啊。”

不过,美国“退群”将使以色列陷入尴尬……此前,美国一直是以色列在人权理事会的主要辩护者。

A U.S. departure deprives Israel of its chief defender at a forum where Israel’s human rights record comes up for discussion at every meeting.

美国的退出让以色列在人权理事会失去了主要辩护者,而人权理事会每次会议都会把以色列人权纪录拎到桌面上谈。

此外值得一提的是,美国口口声声指责人权理事会,但自己却因为“零容忍”的移民政策受到广泛谴责……

就在美国决定退群前一天,联合国人权事务高级官员扎伊德·拉阿德·侯赛因还批评了特朗普政府的移民政策,指责美国政府虐待儿童。

The decision came a day after the U.N. human rights chief slammed the administration’s policy of separating migrant parents from their children after they enter the United States at the Mexican border, calling it “unconscionable” and akin to child abuse.

据BBC报道,今年5月以来,美墨边境数千名移民儿童被强行从父母身边带走,骨肉分离的悲剧引发各界强烈不满。

US immigration officials say 2,342 children have been separated from 2,206 parents from 5 May to 9 June amid a "zero-tolerance" crackdown on illegal immigration brought in by US Attorney General Jeff Sessions.

对于美国退出联合国人权理事会的行为,联合国秘书长古特雷斯表示遗憾。

UN Secretary-General António Guterres, in a statement released through his spokesman, responded by saying he would have "much preferred" the US to remain in the council.

作为最爱退群的总统,自特朗普上任以来,美国已经接连退出跨太平洋伙伴关系协议(TPP)、巴黎气候协定、联合国教科文组织,以及伊朗核问题全面协议等……

中国农民丰收节 Chinese Farmers' Harvest Festival

Chinese Farmers' Harvest Festival, the first in China created specially for farmers, reflects the high priority the central government places on agriculture, rural areas and rural people, as well as its determination to see a thriving agricultural industry, beautiful countryside and well-off farmers.

“中国农民丰收节”是第一个专为农民设立的节日。设立这一节日反映了党中央对“三农”工作高度重视,以及确保农业繁荣、农村美丽、农民富足的决心。

为何将“中国农民丰收节”设立在秋分(autumn equinox)?

农业农村部部长韩长赋透露主要是基于三方面的考虑。

从节气上看,春种秋收,春华秋实,秋分时节硕果累累,最能体现丰收(it's the best time to celebrate the harvest)。

从区域上看,我国地域辽阔、物产丰富,各地收获的时节有所不同,但多数地方都在秋季(Although climates and crops differ in various parts of China, most crops mature in autumn),秋收作物是大头。

从民俗上看,我们国家有十几个少数民族有庆祝丰收的传统节日(ethnic groups in China have their own festivals at harvest time),大多都在下半年。在国家层面设立一个各民族共同参与、共庆丰收的节日,有利于促进中华民族大家庭的和睦团结和发展(to enhance harmony and development of the Chinese nation)。

“中国农民丰收节”会有哪些庆祝活动?

The festival should celebrate farmers, and they are encouraged to think of their own ways to celebrate harvest, Han said.

韩长赋说,这是农民的节日,鼓励农民用自己的方式庆祝丰收。

Some activities will be held nationwide, but most of the celebration will take place at a local level derived from local customs, he said, adding that local governments could host various activities for the festival, such as folk culture performances, food tasting, feasting and sightseeing.

会举办一些全国性的活动,但大部分庆祝活动都会结合当地的民俗文化展开,当地政府可以组织开展民俗文化表演、食物品尝、美食及观光活动。

新精神活性物质 new psychoactive substances

Thirty-four new types of new psychoactive substances, or NPS, were discovered in the past year, bringing the total number of such chemicals to 230.

2017年全年新发现新精神活性物质34种,国内已累计发现230余种。

新精神活性物质(new psychoactive substances,NPS),又称第三代毒品,指为逃避执法打击而对列管毒品进行化学结构修饰所得到的毒品类似物(a range of drugs that have been designed to mimic established illicit drugs),未被国际禁毒公约管制,但具有与管制毒品相似或更强的兴奋、致幻或麻痹效果(induce a similar or stronger psychoactive effect)。此前我们说过的“笑气(laughing gas)”就属于新精神活性物质。

在毒品滥用(drug abuse)的类型方面,合成毒品(synthetic drugs)滥用仍居首位。

报告显示,中国毒品来源于境外输入和国内制造。其中,境外毒品来源主要表现在三个方面:

“金三角”毒品渗透加剧(drugs smuggled from the Golden Triangle region was on the rise),合成毒品入境增多;

“金新月”毒品产量大幅增长(drug production in the Golden Crescent region has also increased significantly),海洛因走私入境增多;

南美可卡因大宗过境中转增势迅猛(international drug traffickers are increasingly using the Chinese mainland as a transit hub for cocaine from South America)。

与此同时,随着互联网、物流快递等新业态迅猛发展,不法分子越来越多地应用现代技术手段,全方位利用陆海空邮渠道走私贩运毒品,贩毒手段的科技化、智能化明显升级。

The Internet has become a platform for traffickers to collude and make transactions.

互联网成为贩毒人员勾连交易的平台。

毫米波人体成像技术 millimeter wave imaging

Using a technology known as millimeter wave imaging, the security scanner can detect objects hidden under clothing, including nonmetallic objects, and can show their shape, size and position, the administration said.

民航局表示,使用毫米波人体成像技术进行安检可以检测出在衣物覆盖下藏匿的物品,包括非金属物品,并可以从图像上获取隐匿物品的形状、大小和位置等信息。

毫米波人体成像技术(millimeter wave imaging)是目前全球安防领域的先进技术,已在美国、英国、荷兰、澳大利亚、日本等国机场用于旅客人身安检。这是安检中常用的一种全身扫描(full body scanner)设备,具有对人体无害、穿透力强的特点,其发射功率不及手机电磁波辐射的千分之一(an emission strength less than 1-thousandth the electromagnetic radiation of a mobile phone),能准确识别人体携带物品,有效提高检查的客观性、准确性、针对性,降低安检员的劳动强度,提升安检效率。

民航局称,未来,毫米波人体成像设备将逐步取代民用机场沿用26年的金属探测门(walk-through metal detectors),旅客也将体验到更加安全、高效的人身安检服务。

阴阳合同 dual contract

Regulators will tighten scrutiny over contracts signed by television show production companies and the participating celebrities to ensure the stars' pay is reasonable, the notice said.

《通知》指出,管理部门要严格规范电视节目制作公司与参与节目的明星签订的合同,确保合理片酬。

所谓阴阳合同,就是说同一笔交易签订了一阴一阳两份合同。“阳合同”用于报税、借贷等官方程序,“阴合同”则用于实际交易。

“阴阳合同”不是娱乐圈的专利,更不是中国人的专利。在中外房地产圈,“阴阳合同”很常见,其对应的英文是:dual contract。

我们来看看英文法律在线词典对dual contract的释义:

Dual contract refers to a contract between parties who have made two contracts for the same transaction. Sometimes one contract may be used to defraud another (such as a lender) as to the terms of the parties' actual agreement. This is an illegal or unethical practice of providing two different contracts for the same transaction. Most often, the contract for larger amount is used to apply for a loan and the real contract is for a lower amount.(www. uslegal.com)

阴阳合同指交易双方针对同一笔交易签订两份合同。有时候,一份合同可能是为了就实际成交协议中的某些条款对另一方(比如贷款出借方)进行欺瞒。同一笔交易有两份合同是违法且不道德的行为。多数情况下,数额较大的那份合同是为了申请贷款,而实际交易的合同数额通常较低。

很显然,上述解释针对的是地产圈的“阴阳合同”,“阳合同”成交数额高于“阴合同”,这样可以用“阳合同”到银行申请到更多贷款。而娱乐圈的“阴阳合同”恰好相反,“阳合同”数额较低,用于报税(tax declaration),而“阴合同”中实际拿到手的片酬更高。除了dual contract以外,我们也可以用double contract来表示“阴阳合同”。

《通知》强调,要制定出台影视节目片酬执行标准,明确演员和节目嘉宾最高片酬限额。

It reiterated a guideline released in September requiring all performers or celebrities of a production, which could be a movie, TV show, or an audiovisual production tailored for video-streaming sites to not be paid more than 40 percent of the production's total cost. In addition, the leading cast members' pay must not exceed 70 percent of the total payment to the cast.

严格落实已有规定,每部电影、电视剧、网络视听节目全部演员、嘉宾的总片酬不得超过制作总成本的40%,主要演员片酬不得超过总片酬的70%。

同时还将加大对偷逃税行为的惩戒力度。

Aside from the effort to fight unhealthy competition of inflating salaries to recruit celebrities, the authorities also will step up punishment against tax cheating and evasion.

坚决纠正高价邀请明星、竞逐明星的不良现象,加大对偷逃税行为的惩戒力度。

Government funds and tax-free, nonprofit foundations are forbidden to invest in movies, TV shows or online productions which feature strong entertainment and commercial characteristics, the notice said.

政府资金、免税的公益基金等不得参与投资娱乐性、商业性强的影视剧和网络视听节目。


唐军英语 | 从业10年

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